Bst 322 week 2 assignment

BST 322 Week 2 Assignment

1. What is the probability of rolling a four in the gambling dice game of craps (given two six sided dice)?  What is the probability that a player can roll a four 3 times in a row (assume that rolling the dice each time does not affect the outcome of the next roll)?

TIPS: Probability is a fraction or decimal = Number of ways it can happen/Total Number of Possibilities

STEP A: Total Number of possibilities = 36 as follows:

 (1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6) (2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6) (3,1) (3,2) (3,3) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6) (4,1) (4,2) (4,3) (4,4) (4,5) (4,6) (5,1) (5,2) (5,3) (5,4) (5,5) (5,6) (6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)

STEP B: Determine the number of ways it can happen for a 4 using two dice.

STEP C: Form the Fraction: Number of ways it can happen/Total Possibilities.

For the 2nd part of Q1 use the multiplicative/consecutive rule

1. Population A and Population B both have a mean height of 70.0 inches with an SD of 6.0.  A random sample of 35 people is picked from population A, and random sample of 65 people is selected from Population B.  Which sample mean will probably yield a more accurate estimate of its population mean?  Why?

TIP: See page  90. You can also calculate the SEM and compare the two values.

3.         Suppose we obtained data on vein size after application of a nitroglycerin ointment in a sample of 50 patients.  The mean vein size is found to be 9.7mm with an SD of 2.5.  Using a t distribution table, what are the confidence limits for a 95% confidence interval?  For a 99% confidence interval?

TIP: Please use either StatCrunch – 1-SAMPLE T-TEST (Summary) on a blank sheet or the formula on page 94.

4.         In a pilot study evaluating the use of a new drug to lower resting heart rates (HR) of patients, the following data was recorded:

 Subject # Resting HR 001 72 002 88 003 71 004 87 005 65 006 77 007 79 008 59 009 75 010 68 011 78 012 90 013 91 014 81 015 85 016 75 017 69

Given that the average resting HR of the general population for this study is 72, use StatCrunch to perform the appropriate t test.  What is the value of t?  Using an alpha of 0.05, is the t statistic significant?  Why?  What are the confidence limits for a 95% confidence interval here and what do they mean for this patient group?  Copy and Paste your work from StatCrunch into your Word document submission.

TIP: USE STATCRUNCH – 1-SAMPLE. Remember to input 72 as per the screen below

5.         Write one or two sentences that could be used to report the results obtained for the t-test in Exercise 4.

TIP: For the report, please use the specific t-test value, the p-value from the test, state whether the result is significant or not and whether you would reject/accept the null hypothesis

6.         For which of the following situations is the independent groups t-test appropriate (if inappropriate, why?):

a.         The independent variable is infant birth weight at one week (normal vs high); the dependent variable is resting heart rate.

b.         The independent variable is radiation treatment on throat cancer patients (after a low dose and then a high dose treatment); the dependent variable is white blood cell count.

c.         The IV is infant birth weight (low vs normal vs high); the DV is number of days absent from school in first grade.

d.         The IV is gender (male vs female); the DV is compliance vs noncompliance with a medication regimen.

e.         The independent variable is married status (single vs married); the dependent variable is happiness measured on a scale from 1 to 50

TIP:

Determine the characteristics of independent groups for t-tests? How many groups are there in the situation? Are there 2 groups in the situation? Are they independent groups and is the DV interval/ratio? If the answer is “yes” to the 3 questions, the situation is APPROPRIATE and you should state that it is so. If one or more of the conditions is/are not present, then the test is inappropriate.

7.         For which of the following situations is the dependent groups t-test appropriate (if not appropriate, why?)

a.         The IV is presence or absence of conversation directed to comatose patients (same patients with and without conversation); the DV is the patients’ intracranial pressure.

b.         The IV is birth type (home vs hospital); the DV is perceived functional ability of the patient 48 hours after surgery.

c.         The IV is time since incarceration (1 months vs 3 months vs 6 months); the DV is body weight.

d.         The IV is menopausal state (pre vs post) in the same women over time; the DV is attitudes toward menopause.

e.         The IV is nap therapy for narcoleptics (same patients before vs after treatment); the DV is the type of nap they had the following week (had unplanned vs didn’t have unplanned nap).

TIP: Determine the characteristics of dependent groups for t-tests. How many groups are there in the situation? Are there 2 groups in the situation? Are they dependent groups and is the DV interval/ratio? If the answer is “yes” to the 3 questions, the situation is APPROPRIATE and you should state that it is so. If one or more of the conditions is/are not present, then the test is inappropriate

8.         Suppose we wanted to test the hypothesis that a control group of cancer patients (Group 1) would report higher mean pain ratings than an experimental group receiving special massage treatments (Group 2).  Use the following information.  Compute a t-statistic for independent groups:

mean group 1 = 79.1               SD21 = 42.1     n1 = 25

mean group 2 = 74.1               SD22 = 39.7     n2 = 25

What are the degrees of freedom and the value of t ? Using α=0.05 for a two-tailed test, is this t statistic significant?  Show your calculations (or StatCrunch output) for full credit.

9.         Write one or two sentences that could be used to report the results obtained for the t-test in Exercise 8.

TIP: For the report, please use the t-test value, the p-value from the test, state whether the result is significant or not and whether you would reject/accept the null hypothesis.

10.       For each of the following t values, indicate whether the t is statistically significant for a two-tailed test, at the specified alphas:

a.                   t = 2.90, df = 25, α = 0.001

b.                  t = 2.00, df = 25, α = 0.05

c.                   t = 5.52, df = 10, α = 0.01

d.                  t = 2.02, df = 20,  α = 0.05

TIP: Use the tables on page 412 to obtain your answer. If the t-value is GREATER than the value in the critical/tabled value, the result is statistically significant.

11.       For each of the following situations, indicate whether ANOVA is appropriate; if not appropriate, the reason why not; and, if appropriate, the type of ANOVA that would be used (i.e., one-way, repeated measures, etc.)

a.         The IVs are ethnicity (Asian, White, African American, Hispanic) and gender (male vs female); the DV is serum cholesterol levels.

b.         The IV is smoking status – smokers vs non-smokers; the DV is health-related hardiness as measured on a 20-item scale.

c.         The IV is maternal breast feeding status (breastfeeds daily vs breastfeeds at least 1-3 times/week vs doesn’t breastfeed); the DV is maternal bonding with infant, as measured on a 20-item self-report scale.

d.         The IV is treatment group for patients with drug-induced shivering (extremity wraps vs high room temp vs normal room temp without wraps) different patients used for each treatment; the DV is myocardial oxygen consumption (measured in ml O2/min per 100g of tissue).

e.         The IV is length of gestation (preterm vs term vs postterm) using the same multiple birth mothers over time; the DV is blood pressure 10 minutes post delivery.

TIP: Determine the characteristics of ANOVAs. How many groups are there in the situation? Are there 3 groups in the situation? Is the DV interval/ratio? If the answer is “yes” to all the questions, the situation is APPROPRIATE and you should state that it is so. If one or more of the conditions is/are not present, then the test is inappropriate. If it is APPROPRIATE, please state which type of ANOVA it is.

12.       Suppose we wanted to compare the somatic complaints (as measured on a scale known as the Physical Symptom Scale or PSS) of three groups of people: non-smokers, smokers, and people who recently quit smoking.   Using the following data for PSS, do a one-way ANOVA to test the hypothesis that the population means are equal:

Nonsmokers                   Smokers                     Quitters

19                                31                                30

28                                29                                22

29                                22                                30

20                                20                                29

25                                28                                34

Using StatCrunch, determine the means for the three groups and compute the sums of squares, degrees of freedom, and mean squares for these data.  What is the value of F?  Using an alpha of 0.05, is the F statistic significant?  Why?  Copy and Paste your work from StatCrunch into your Word document submission.

TIP: Conduct a one-way ANOVA using STATCRUNCH

13.       A new motorcycle is being developed to meet new gas mileage standards recently passed by the federal government.  An engineer tested three model designs by randomly assigning the motorcycles in a blind study (the riders recorded the mileage but did not know the design of the motorcycle, only its code). The data in miles per gallon (MPG) for the three designs is listed below:

 X-1 B-1 Z-1 45 55 54 62 55 52 50 54 41 65 44 40 62 52 38 50 69 39 50 58 51 58 45 64

Using StatCrunch, determine the means for the three groups and compute the sums of squares, degrees of freedom, and mean squares for these data.  What are the hypotheses to be tested here? What is the value of F?  Using an alpha of 0.05, is the F statistic significant?  Why?  Copy and Paste your work from StatCrunch into your Word document submission for full credit.

TIP: Another example using 1-way ANOVA in StatCrunch

14.       For each of the following F values, indicate whether the F is statistically significant at the specified alpha level:

a.         F = 4.80, df = 4, 40  α = 0.01

b.         F = 5.00, df = 3, 60, α = 0.001

c.         F = 3.45, df = 3, 27, α = 0.05

d.         F = 1.99, df = 2, 150, α = 0.01

e.         F = 3.09, df = 2, 250, α = 0.05

TIP: Use the textbook ANOVA tables on pages 413 to 415 [look to see if the alpha value for each of your F-statistic is correct for the table you have selected].

If the F-statistic is GREATER than the value in the critical/tabled value, the result is statistically significant.

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